Fair use is a fundamental right and legal exemption provided by Section 107 of the Copyright Law to the exclusive rights of copyright holders. Fair use is important as it allows people to progress art and science by allowing the use of existing cultural and scientific works with limitations. It is a "First Amendment Safeguard" that allows for the critique, commentary, and scholarship around works.
Fair use is determined based on the following four factors:
Intention is an important part of the consideration and something is more likely to be considered fair use if it is transformative in nature. Transformative means it provides a new purpose or creates a new meaning or insight into a work.