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Citation Styles: CMS Articles: Notes and Bibliography Style

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When using the Notes and Bibliography Style of CMS, in-text citations take the form of notes which include a superscripted note number in the text, either at the end of a sentence or clause,1 and a note which has the citation. For footnotes this citation will appear at the bottom of the page and for endnotes  this citation will be listed at the end of the paper.

Here is what a footnote looks like:

Footnotes will look similar to their reference counterpart in your bibliography, however, the author's names are listed first name last name and punctuation might vary slightly. Footnote examples are given below bibliography entries for each format type.

The shortened footnote is used when you have already fully cited source in a previous footnote:

  1. Alexey Yu Karpechko and Elisa Manzini, "Arctic Stratosphere Dynamical Response to Global Warming," Journal of Climate 30, no. 17 (2017): 7075, Academic Search Premier.
  2. Brian Grazer and Charles Fishman, A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 12.
  3. Karpechko and Manzini, "Arctic Stratosphere," 7078.

If you are citing the same source in an immediately preceding note, you use Ibid to indicate all the parts are identical:

  1. Alexey Yu Karpechko and Elisa Manzini, "Arctic Stratosphere Dynamical Response to Global Warming," Journal of Climate 30, no. 17 (2017): 7075, Academic Search Premier.
  2. Ibid., 7078.

How to Add Footnotes and Endnotes in Word

Article Citation

Journal Article from a Library Database


Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume number, Issue number (Date of Publication): page numbers. DOI, URL, or Name of Database.

Bibliography Entry:

LaSalle, Peter. "Conundrum: A Story about Reading." New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95-109. Project MUSE.


1. Peter LaSalle, "Conundrum: A Story about Reading," New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95, Project MUSE.

Shortened Footnote:

3. LaSalle, "Conundrum," 101.

Print Journal Article


Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal issue number, volume number (Date of Publication): Page range.

Bibliography Entry:

Gold, Ann Grodzins. "Grains of Truth: Shifting Hierarchies of Food and Grace in Three Rajasthani Tales." History of Religions 38, no. 2 (1998): 150-71.


1. Meghan Warner Mettler, "Modern Butterfly: American Perceptions of Japanese Women and their Role in International Relations, 1945-1960," Journal of Women's History 26, no.4 (Winter 2014): 71.

Shortened Footnote:

3. Mettler, "Modern Butterfly," 60.

News or Magazine Article


Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Magazine Title, Publication Date. URL.

Bibliography Entry:

Mead, Rebecca. "The Prophet of Dystopia." New Yorker, April 17, 2017.


1. Rebecca Mead, "The Prophet of Dystopia," New Yorker, April 17, 2017, 43.

2. Kate Samuelson, "Here's How Much Snow the 'Bomb Cyclone' Dropped on the East Coast," Time, January 5, 2018,

Shortened Footnote:

3. Mead, "Dystopia," 47.

4. Samuelson, "'Bomb Cyclone.'"

Book Review


Reviewer Last Name, Reviewer First Name. "Title of Book Review." Review of Book Title, by Author First Name Author Last Name. Title of Magazine/Newspaper, Date of Publication.

Bibliography Entry:

Kakutani, Michiko. "Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges." Review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith. New York Times, November 7, 2016.


1. Michiko Kakutani, "Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges," review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith, New York Times, November 7, 2016.

Shortened Footnote:

3. Katunani, "Friendship."